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Multiple States of Nanoring Magnetic Tunnel Junctions

Background: The geometry of a nanoring magnet provides unique magnetic configurations of onion, vortex, and twisted, which can be exploited in nanoring magnetic tunnel junctions (NRMTJs) .

When the reference layer is in the onion state, the storage layer in a NRMTJ can acquire the onion, the reversed onion, and the twisted state, where the first two by linear magnetic field, and the third by spin torque and a circulatory field.
We have achieved these states in 100-nm nanoring MTJs, the smallest to date. Notice the low resistance states by either field switching or current switching are the same, whereas the high resistance states are different.